提高10分!考研英语二大作文“模板”

2022年 12月 16日 作者 gong2022 0


表格(Table)可以使大量数据系统化,便于阅读、比较。表格常由标题(Title)、表头(Box-head)(表格的第一行)、侧目(Stub)(表格左边的第一列)和主体(Body)部分(表格的其余部分)等部分组成。用表格表达的信息具体准确,而且表格中的各项均按一定规律排列。阅读表格时要注意找出表格中各个项目的相互关系,表格中各个项目的变化规律。

图作文

— —图作文又可分为三种:圆形图作文、曲线图作文和条状图作文。

(1) 圆形图作文

圆形图(Pie chart)也称为饼状图或圆面分割图。圆形图因为比较形象和直观,各部分空间大小差别容易分辨,所以常用来表示总量和各分量之间的百分比关系。整个圆表示总量,楔形块表示分量。有时圆形图还有数值表,两者结合可把各分量表示得更准确、清楚。

(2) 曲线图作文

曲线图(Line graph)也称为线性图或坐标图。曲线图最适合表示两个变量之间关系的发展过程和趋势。一般来说,曲线所呈现的形状比某一点所代表的变量的值更有意义。曲线图有横轴和纵轴。一般先看横轴所代表的数量或时间等,然后再看纵轴所显示的意义。同时必须找出线条所反映的最高或最低的变化。

(3) 条形图作文

条形图(Bar graph)也称为立柱图或圆柱图。条形图由宽度相同但长度不同的条块代表不同的量。当要比较几个项目或量时,常用不同颜色来区分。条形图主要用来表示:1)同一项目在不同时间的量;2)同一时间不同项目的量。阅读条形图时,要先看图例,再看横轴、纵横各代表什么量,每一个刻度所代表的值是多少,最后找出图中各长条所表示的数据及各长条间的相互关系。

第二节 图表作文的出题形式

图表作文,要么是静态图,要么是动态图。所谓动态图,就是指图中含有年份的变化,表达某一个特定的主语在一段时间内的趋势和不同。如何快速地区分动态图和静态图的标准就是去找寻题目中是否有类似于from…to…,between…and…等相似的表达即可。而所有的图表中,线形图是一种最为经典的图表。静态图常见的是柱图,饼图和表格题,例如占比类。

第三节 图表作文的写作要领

图表作文着重说明事实,常常是通过对图表中所反映的具体数据的说明、分析、比较,对某种事物或现象的事实或变化情况等加以说明,并提出结论或看法。因此,图表作文常常采用议论文体的写作方法。

写好图表作文,关键在于能否读懂图表中所提供的信息,把握各信息间的联系,用准确流畅的语言把这一信息表达出来,并就这一信息发表自己的看法。

图表作文的写作步骤

写图表作文时,要注意遵循以下步骤:

1) 认真分析图表的含义,弄清图表中所含的信息及不同信息间的关系;

2) 确定文章的主题思想,构思出文章的基本框架,筛选出能说明图表主题思想的典型数据;

3) 编列文章的提纲;

4) 根据文章的提纲,将各段的提纲内容扩展成段落,然后将各个段落组成文章,注意段与段之间的衔接与过渡;

5) 检查与修改。

图表作文的篇章结构

写图表作文时,常采用三段式的谋篇方式。文章的第一段往往分析图表中的数据变化反映什么问题或趋势,概述图表所揭示的信息。第二段分析造成这一问题或趋势的原因。第三段则展望未来的情况或提出解决问题的办法或建议。这一结构可以简单地表述为:

第一段:概述图表反映的主题思想

第二段:分析产生的原因

第三段:展望未来或提出方法或建议

第四节 图表作文常用的词汇

一、图表作文写作常识

1、图形种类及概述法:

泛指一份数据图表:a data graph/chart/diagram/illustration/table

饼图:pie chart

直方图或柱形图:bar chart / histogram

趋势曲线图:line chart / curve diagram

表格图:table

流程图或过程图:flow chart / sequence diagram

程序图:processing/procedures diagram

2、常用的描述用法

The table/chart diagram/graph shows (that)

According to the table/chart diagram/graph

As (is) shown in the table/chart diagram/graph

As can be seen from the table/chart/diagram/graph/figures,

figures/statistics shows (that)……

It can be seen from the figures/statistics

We can see from the figures/statistics

It is clear from the figures/statistics

It is apparent from the figures/statistics

table/chart/diagram/graph figures (that) ……

table/chart/diagram/graph shows/describes/illustrates how

3、图表中的数据(Data)具体表达法

数据(Data)在某一个时间段固定不变:fixed in time

在一系列的时间段中转变:changes over time

持续变化的data在不同情况下:

增加:increase / raise / rise / go up ……

减少:decrease / grow down / drop / fall ……

波动:fluctuate / rebound / undulate / wave ……

稳定:remain stable / stabilize / level off ……

最常用的两种表达法:

动词+副词形式(Verb+Adverb form)

形容词+名词形式(Adjective+Noun form)

二、相关常用词组

1、主章开头

图表类型:table、chart、diagram graph、column chart、pie graph

描述:show、describe、illustrate、can be seen from、clear、apparent、reveal、represent

内容:figure、statistic、number、percentage、proportion

2、表示数据变化的单词或者词组

rapid/rapidly 迅速的,飞快的,险峻的

dramatic/dramatically 戏剧性的,生动的

significant/significantly 有意义的,重大的,重要的

sharp/sharply 锐利的,明显的,急剧的

steep/steeply 急剧升降的

steady/steadily 稳固的,坚定不移的

gradual/gradually 渐进的,逐渐的

slow/slowly 缓慢的,不活跃的

slight/slightly 轻微的、略微地

stable/stably 稳定的

3、其它在描述中的常用到的词

significant changes 图中一些较大变化

noticeable trend 明显趋势

during the same period 在同一时期

grow/grew 增长

distribute 分布,区别

unequally 不相等地

in the case of adv. 在……的情况下

in terms of / in respect of / regarding 在……方面

in contrast 相反,大不相同

government policy 政府政策

market forces 市场规率

measure  n.尺寸,方法,措施v.估量,调节

forecast  n.先见,预见v.预测

第五节 作文段落描述

一、画面描述段

1、As is vividly shown in the picture, …

2、It is clearly depicted in the picture that…

3、This picture depicts a thought-provoking scene of…

4、According to the figures given in the chart, …

5、The chart above provides a series of essential figures, illustrating the changes taking place in a time span of…years.

6、The graph demonstrates that the number of… is growing/declining rapidly in…

7、According to the table/pie chart/line graph/bar graph, we can see/conclude that … 根据该表/图,我们可知 ……

8、The table/graph reveals (shows/indicates/illustrates/ represents/points out) that … 该表/图表明……

9、As we can see from the table …

As can be seen from the line/bar graph …

As is shown (illustrated/indicated) in the pie chart … 如表/图所示……

二、话题引出段

1、Nowadays, there is a growing concern over the issue of…

2、People in growing numbers are directing their attention to…

3、When it comes to…,people`s notions may vary from one to another.

4、Traditional virtue/value has it that… ,yet people are…currently.

5、What is shown in the column chart above indicates that dramatic changes have taken place in …… in ……from …… to …….

6、The column chart clearly reveals the statistics of …… in a certain ……. According to the survey, there has been a steady increase from …… to …… for……,while the percentage of …… has jumped markedly to …….

7、The column chart above clearly reflects the changes in the statistics of the …… during the past wo/three/four decades.

8、The pie chart above clearly illustrates the percentage of the residents’ spending in …… during …….

9、The line graph clearly illustrates that the number of …… both increased markedly between …… and …….

三、解释图表段

1、Compared with … is still increased by …

2、The number of … grew/rose from … to …

3、An increase is shown in …; then came a sharp increase of …

4、 In … the number remains the same/drops to …

5、There was a very slight (small/slow/gradual) rise/increase in 1990.

6、There was a very steady (marked/sharp/rapid/sudden/ dramatic) drop (decrease/ decline/ fall/ reduction) in 1998/ compared with that of last year).

7、For……, there was a noticeable jump of ……between ……and……. By contrast, a remarkable decline occurred in the ……during the same period.

8、From the statistics given, we may draw the conclusion that …… is……

9、Based upon the data given above, we can see that the number of museums has risen dramatically from …… to …… during the ……

四、引出观点段

1、There are at least two/three/four fundamental causes accounting for these changes.

2、At least two/three/four primary contributing factors account for these changes.

3、The fundamental factors that contribute to the aforementioned comparison may be summarized as follows.

4、From my perspective, the tendency in the bar chart above can be traced back to two/three/four major contributors.

5、The reasons for this trend are as follows.

6、Several major factors contribute to the aforementioned changes.

五、利弊列举段

1、Every coin has two sides, and this issue is no exception.

2、Above all,…In addition…More importantly…However the negative influence it renders should not be neglected….not only…but also…

3、Is this phenomenon a

blessing or a curse? The following list of advantages and disadvantages can explain everything.

六、举例论证段

1、For instance, …

2、Take…for an example

3、A case in point is…

4、The following illustrations can serve as strong evidence of the phenomenon.

七、原因举例段

1、Why should this phenomenon take place? There are generally three factors accounting for it.

2、Having taken everything into consideration, we may attribute the sharp change to three aspects.

八、意义阐述段

1、The purpose of the picture is to show us that due attention has to be paid to…

2、The fact / phenomenon that… indicates that…

3、Having scrutinized the details of the picture , we can discuss the implications subtly conveyed from it .

九、归纳结论段

1、In conclusion, …

2、In my opinion,…

3、As far as I am concerned,…

4、Taking into account all the analyses above, we may confidently come to the conclusion that…

十、建议措施段

1、Therefore, it is imperative that we should take some drastic measures.

2、As far as I am concerned two effective measures must be immediately taken to pull through the crisis.

3、As a result , it is advisable to settle the problem by two means.