2022年 12月 20日 作者 gong2022 0

Many things make people think artists are weird and the weirdest may be this: artists’ only job is to explore emotions, and yet they choose to focus on the ones that feel bad.

This wasn’t always so. The earliest forms of art, like painting and music, are those best suited for expressing joy. But somewhere in the 19th century, more artists began seeing happiness as insipid, phony or, worst of all, boring as we went from Wordsworth’s daffodils to Baudelaire’s flowers of evil.

You could argue that art became more skeptical of happiness because modern times have seen such misery. But it’s not as if earlier times didn’t know perpetual war, disaster and the massacre of innocents. The reason, in fact, may be just the opposite: there is too much damn happiness in the world today.

After all, what is the one modern form of expression almost completely dedicated to depicting happiness? Advertising. The rise of anti-happy art almost exactly tracks the emergence of mass media, and with it, a commercial culture in which happiness is not just an ideal but an ideology.

People in earlier eras were surrounded by reminders of misery. They worked until exhausted, lived with few protections and died young. In the West, before mass communication and literacy, the most powerful mass medium was the church, which reminded worshippers that their souls were in peril and that they would someday be meat for worms. Given all this, they did not exactly need their art to be a bummer too.

Today the messages your average Westerner is bombarded with are not religious but commercial, and forever happy. Fast-food eaters, news anchors, text messengers, all smiling, smiling. Our magazines feature beaming celebrities and happy families in perfect homes. And since these messages have an agenda–to lure us to open our wallets to make the very idea of happiness seem unreliable. “Celebrate!” commanded the ads for the arthritis drug Celebrex, before we found out it could increase the risk of heart attacks.

What we forget–what our economy depends on is forgetting–is that happiness is more than pleasure without pain. The things that bring the greatest joy carry the greatest potential for loss and disappointment. Today, surrounded by promises of easy happiness, we need someone to tell us as religion once did, Memento mori: remember that you will die, that everything ends, and that happiness comes not in denying this but in living with it. It’s a message even more bitter than a clove cigarette, yet, somehow, a breath of fresh air.

16. By citing the example of poets Wordsworth and Baudelaire, the author intends to show that___

A. Poetry is not as expressive of joy as painting or music.

B. Art grow out of both positive and negative feeling.

C. Poets today are less skeptical of happiness.

D. Artist have changed their focus of interest.

17. The word “bummer” (Line 5. paragraph 5)most probably means something____

A. religious B. unpleasant C. entertaining D. commercial

18. In the author’s opinion, advertising___

A. emerges in the wake of the anti-happy part.

B . is a cause of disappointment for the general peer

C. replace the church as a major source of information

D. creates an illusion of happiness rather than happiness itself.

19. We can learn from the last paragraph that the author believes____

A. Happiness more often than not ends in sadness.

B. The anti-happy art is distasteful by refreshing.

C. Misery should be enjoyed rather than denied.

D. The anti-happy art flourishes when economy booms

20. Which of the following is true of the text ?

A. Religion once functioned as a reminder of misery.

B. Art provides a balance between expectation and


C. People feel disappointed at the realities of morality.

D. mass media are inclined to cover disasters and deaths.

Unit 13(2006)Part 4


1. weird a. 不自然的,怪异的,非传统的

2. perpetual a. 永远的,永恒的

3. skeptical (+ about/ of) a. phr. 对……不肯相信的,对……常怀疑的相关词 skeptic n. 怀疑论者skepticism n. 怀疑态度;怀疑论

4. disaster n. 灾难,天灾人祸

5. massacre n. 大屠杀,惨败

6. track ① vt. 跟踪,追踪② n. 足迹,踪迹;路径,小路,路线;搭配track down跟踪,追踪; 对……追查到底; off track(比喻)停止,出轨;on track (比喻)按期;未出差错; on the right/ wrong track 想法(或做法)对头/不对头;yield the track to 屈服于;track meet 田径运动会; track man田径运动员ideology n. 思想体系;思想意识

7. reminder n. 令人回忆起……的东西,提醒人……的东西相关词 remindful(that +从句),牢记(从句)。例:He is remindful that he owes his friend money. 他牢记欠朋友的钱。remind about 就……提醒某人; remind sb.of sth.使(默认)想起某事;remind sb.that (+从句) 提醒某人(+从句)

8. literacy n.读写能力

9. opposite a. 相对的,相反的

10. bombard vt. be bombarded with

11. beaming a. = happy and cheerful 面露喜色的

12. celebrity n. (尤指娱乐界的)名人,名流;名声,名誉

13. lure ① n.吸引力 (+for); 诱惑物② lure sb.to do sth. vt. phr. =attract; tempt 吸引;引诱;诱惑insipid a. 无味的,乏味的,单调的

14. phony a. =not real or genuine 假的,伪造的

15. daffodil n. 黄水仙花

16. peril n. 极大的危险,招致危险的事物/原因;相关词 perilous a.=hazardous, very dangerous bummer =a bad or disappointing experience 失望的、不愉快的经历重要词组

17. be in peril 处在危险中

18. given all this[状语或插入语]= if so如果这样


16.【正确答案】[D]artists have changed their focus of interest.






18.【正确答案】[D]creates an illusion of happiness rather than happiness itself.



19.【正确答案】[B]The antihappy art is distasteful by refreshing.


【试题解析】注意原文“we need someone to tell us …, yet, somehow, a breath of fresh air.” (忧愁的艺术告诉我们的尽管苦涩,却带来一股令我们清醒的清新气息。本句中someone就是指本篇讨论的现代艺术,而现代艺术的本质是anti-happy的。看看[B]more bitter“对应”distasteful;“a breath of fresh air”对应“refreshing”。 而that happiness comes not in denying this but in living with it中的代词this /it 都是指人生的unhappiness,意思也就是 misery, 这句话的意思是幸福不在于否认生活中有misery, 而是应该去接受或容忍它。命题者将这句话前错后对地改写了,Misery should be enjoyed rather than denied. 这里enjoy作者用了个非常具有干扰性的词。注意:live with = put up with sth. unpleasant (accept or tolerate接受和忍受不愉快的事情) 怎么可能等同于enjoy呢!

20.【正确答案】[A]Religion once functioned as a reminder of misery.